Water is the universal solvent which means that in time it will dissolve most minerals on and under the earth. This holds particularly true to man-made materials such as Carbon Steel (from Fe ore), Copper alloys and Galvanize pipe (Zinc Coated either hot-dipped or electroplated) and their associated equipment, which for the most part are on the waterside of the system. Tubing, pipes and flat surfaces of the same material that are exposed to water and oxygen will revert to its natural state in time.
Summary; Basic water treatment is used to prevent losses of metallic material (corrosion), scale formation (heat transfer losses) and preventing bio-film from forming on heat transfer services. The most important part arguably is the MICRO-BIO component of any water source that is used and treated as it has a direct affect on the corrosion, scaling and fouling issues.
Water treatment has taken on many forms for over 100+ years now. We now have technology of various types to treat both boiler and cooling towers & heat exchanges. Most advances have been introduced for cooling systems in both tower design and hybrids that are made up of very high tech evap media.
- Traditional chemical applications
- Phosphonate or derivatives for scale and/or corrosion control
- Sulfuric Acid to lower pH/alkalinity if needed
- Oxidizer and or a Broad Spectrum non-oxidizer
- Bleed required to maintain product operating specifications
- Non-Chemical Devices
- Magnetic (non-powered)
- Pulsed Magnetic Power
- Chamber Bombardment Under High Pressure
- Bleed is active and varies based on system constraints
- High Silica 300ppm+
- High TDS, pH
- COC's running upwards of 50-100+
- Bio-static (no active growth) zero bio-film
- Eliminates dependence on chemicals for treatment
- No active bleed < 2% water total plant discharge
Water Treatment Methodologies
EVERY QUESTION YOU MAY THINK OF AND PLENTY YOU HAVE NOT; ARE LINKED HERE BELOW TO HELP YOU UNDERSTAND WHAT WCTI HAS ACHIEVED THROUGHOUT THE WORLD
- AIST 2007 - Presentation "Zero Liquid Discharge Cooling Tower Treatment at CSI"
- AIST 2007 - Conference Paper "Zero Liquid Discharge Cooling Tower Treatment at CSI"
- AIST 2008 - April 2008 I&ST Article "Zero Liquid Discharge Cooling Tower Treatment at CSI"
- Anderson1_2007 -"The Effects Of pH And TDS On Bacteria, Viruses, And Spores In Water"
- Anderson2_2007 - "Review Of Potential PM Emissions From Cooling Tower Drift When Operating At Zero Tower Discharge"
- Anderson3_2011 - "Altenative PM10 Estimation Methods For Cooling Tower Air Permit Applications"
- Anderson4_2012 - "Zero Cooling Tower Discharge - Power Use Impact"
- CP1 American Puplic Power Association-Chiller Retrofit Energy Savings
- CP2 Total Cost Of Ownership - Chilled Water Systems (PPT)
- CP3 North Carolina Energy Office-Chiller Performance Fact Sheet
- CP4 Chiller Fouling Penalty Cost Chart
- CP5 / HX4 / BIO1 Biofilm-Deposits_Whitepaper
- CP6 / HX5 / BIO2 Biofilm Control-Calcium Removal
- CP7 / HX6 / LSI1 Calcium Scale Fouling Factors
- HX1 Cooling Tower Energy Analysis
- HX2 LAKOS_Quit Cooling Dirt
- HX3 APV-SPX_Heat Transfer Handbook
- LSI-02 Metro Handbook - Frayne - Fouling Factors
- LSI-03 Wu OSU - Water Side Fouling and Thermal Performance
- BIO1 Biofilm Control - Industrial_Ca-Mg Removal
- BIO3 CDC Biofilms-Propagation of Infectious Diseases
- pH of Natural and Processed Foods-Pathogen Protection
- CONRAD 2007 - Water Use and Discharge Minimization Using Silica / ZLD Approach in Towers
- INTERNATIONAL WATER CONFERENCE - Report 07-11 "ZLD; New Technology for Cooling Towers"
- INTERNATIONAL WATER CONFERENCE - Presentation 07-11 "ZLD; New Technology for Towers"
- California Sustainability Alliance - The Role of Recycled Water in Energy Efficiency
- WateReuse CA2009 - Mar 09 Pres; Recycled Water use in Cooling Towers / Green technology
- WateReuse 24th - Paper; Recycled Water use in Cooling Towers / Green technology
- WateReuse 24th - Sept 09 Pres; Recycled Water use in Cooling Towers / Green technology
- WateReuse CA2012 - Paper; RBF - Bowden - "Going Green, Recycled Water use in Cooling Towers"
- WateReuse CA2012 - Mar 2012 Pres - RBF - Bowden -"A BioTech Firm's Story"
- WateReuse CA2012 - Mar 2012 Pres - MEGAWATT Consulting - Mares -"Where's My Watery"
- WateReuse IWRSC2013 - DEC 2013 Pres - RBF - Bowden -"Operational Update on Innovative Technology"
- MEGAWATT Consilting 2012 - Mares Blog -"How to Save Water Costs in Your Data Centery"
- BOEING FRONTIERS - SSG - Oct 09 - Cooling Tower Water Conservation (Internal Publication)
- WCTI - Technology Brochure
- WCTI - Technical Bulletin
- WCTI - RPA (Regeration Performance Analysis) Bulletin
- WCTI - Artemis Top 50 Award Press Release
- ECO-FRIENDLY AWARD - Yahoo! Quincy WA
- Analyst Summer 2016 "Legionella Outbreak Prevention For Cooling Towers"
- Pathogens 2017 Journal MDPI